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Speaker: OTAN, Outreach and Technical Assistance Network.

Kristi Reyes: Hi, everybody. Thank you for coming. This is about projects. And the specific focus is ESL and ABE, not necessarily CTE because that's not my area of expertise and there's just so much more with that as far as team goes. So the maker spaces and all of those kind of things. I'm more into the language area of projects.

So if this is not your type of session, I understand. But I hope you could get something even if ABE or ESL are not your areas. I am an OTAN subject matter expert, not an expert. Just a learner along with you all. And I am an ESL teacher at MiraCosta College in the non-credit program.

So today, we're going to cover what projects are and are not and why do projects? What are the benefits? What are some things to think about before you bring in project-based learning. And what I want to say is traditionally PBL or project-based learning is when students more traditionally in K through 12 do a project over a very sustained period of time.

We don't have that luxury because of fluctuating attendance and shorter terms of study. So what I would like to do is projects that can be completed within a week or so, more like that. So that's what I'm going to be covering. I think you would agree that having students do a project over 16 weeks, we may not have the same students around at the end.

So I'm going to show you some sample projects that you can use or modify for use even next week if you wanted to for intermediate through advanced ESL. You may see some things that maybe you can modify down even to lower levels of ESL, but definitely appropriate for ABE, ASE students. And then at the end, I'll share some sources for project ideas. So hopefully, by the end of this short session, you will be able to describe the advantages for your learners of using project-based learning. And maybe replicate or modify for use something that you see today.

So project-based learning. Well, in today's workplaces, it's all about projects, really it is. And so these can be in our classrooms replicating what students need to do in their jobs that they have now in college courses if they get to that level and in their everyday lives. I mean, our students probably have projects that they do in their own households, right? So it's very relevant.

In project-based learning, students can gain knowledge about different subject areas. I gained knowledge by introducing projects in different areas. I have one coming up planned in that area of art. I know nothing about art, and I'm so excited because I'm going to learn myself. So by having students engage in tasks, they're creating this end product that demonstrates their knowledge and their skills game.

Students can dive deeper into a topic by reading and taking on some of the agency for research. So this gives them a lot of choice and autonomy. And it's really andragogy-based, where students are taking charge. And in addition to traditional literacy, reading, writing, when we integrate technology with projects, we're developing some of those 13 literacies described by the edtech technologist, Kathy Shrock. I have a link here if you're interested in what they all are.

But specifically, digital literacy, visual literacy, data literacy, depending on the project info and tool literacy. And when we carefully design a project, we can meet standards. For us, that would be CCRS or ELPS. And finally, by not just having students study grammar or different-- do different readings, we can go deeper in that we can integrate all skills and build students' background knowledge that will help them prepare for college and careers as well.

So this is a quote by the executive director of the Buck Institute for Education. And this is a group that is really an advocate for project-based learning. And as you can see as he says that our world of work is changing. More and more tasks are being automated. I know I've had many students over the years that were working in manufacturing. Those jobs are gone. So now with the jobs of the future, collaboration is going to be the norm. And the information age is so important.

I mean, students nowadays, they will need to learn how to navigate different systems like SharePoint and sharing things online. So it has become a project-based world and we need to get students ready for that. So one time I was coaching a teacher in another state and she said, I'm really excited about this project. I'm going to have students write a paragraph.

[laughs] In my mind, a paragraph is not really a project. So projects are not grammar exercises, a reading, a worksheet, a paragraph, or a dialogue, or a drill. Some of those exercises that we do in ESL and maybe a bit in ABE. But projects are assignments that we can have students do either individually or in teams where they investigate a question or a problem. They go deeper and they think critically and they end with a product that they share or publicly publish.

We can build community. Not just community in the class, community in the school, community in the larger town or city we live in. And students can collaborate and communicate for authentic purposes, aligned to standards as well as I mentioned. And we need to do all that scaffolding and teaching. You can't just say, hey, we're going to do a project, let's make a community garden.

We have to teach the language through direct instruction and scaffold, and make sure that we give students some choices about how they produce that end product because they are adults. And maybe they have different ways to showcase their skills and their knowledge. Projects are opportunities for students to use the language. We teach grammar. We teach punctuation. We teach vocabulary.

But here is a great way to put it all together. And then we want to make sure that you may even ask your students, hey, let's do a project. I was thinking of this and this and this. Which one would be most interesting for you all? Make sure that you get to know your students well so that you can relate projects to your students' goals, their needs and their lives. And give them a chance to receive and give feedback.

Finally, I already mentioned about student autonomy. And having students, hey, here's your project. Here are resources to do it. This is an idea of what the end may look like. You're giving them that sense of self-efficacy I can do this that will carry over into their language ability. And you give them a chance to giving them different choices to choose the way to produce a product to shine, to show their best abilities, their best skills. OK.

So I mentioned at the beginning, traditionally project-based learning is over a very long period of time. But you just can't do that necessarily in adult ed. So you can do a simple project that honestly could be conducted in a single class period you could. You do all the teaching ahead of time and then you do need to give class time for that then.

Group projects are what we do in workplaces. We know this. I have heard many teachers over the years say, no, no, no. It always ends up being one teach-- one student doing all of the work. And in the workplace sometimes that's true, too. [laughs]

But when students are giving class time and specific detailed instructions and roles and duties, so that everybody is depending on everybody else with class time to do it, the result can be amazing. And all the language and negotiation and soft skills building that happens, we are doing our students a great favor that by including group projects.

And finally, when you have a project you know your students well and you include a project and you've done a lot of preparation through the teaching ahead of time if it's so interesting and engaging. I've had this before teaching remotely that OK, it was a night class. Bye everybody. Class is over. It was 9 o'clock PM. I'm really tired. I left the Zoom room and the students stayed in Zoom to keep working together on their project. OK.

It can happen. But you need to do it. You have to plan it out and know your students well. So as far as standards based, probably you've heard of CCRS. And that's more for ABE adult secondary. With that, that was in 2013 that calls for more complexity in the text that we use. More having students read and write and speak making presentations. Not about your feelings, not about your personal experiences but grounded in evidence from the text. And building students' knowledge.

So bringing in different topic areas, maybe different subject areas that they may encounter in college and careers. And then next came the ELPS for English language learners. And similarly, it called for increase on rigor in our instruction, including academic language even at the lower levels of ESL instruction, including the teaching of language strategy.

So when students don't understand something instead of slipping into their first language, how they can use strategic competence to understand or explain themselves in a different way? And the development of critical thinking skills, as well as the building of background knowledge. So not just teaching grammar in English, but teaching them about the different things that are around us like teaching them-- as I said, maybe about art or teaching them maybe a little bit about psychology, for example.

So when you look at the ELPS, there are standard five in particular for ELPS describes about the technology that we need to start integrating for our ESL students. I don't know if you've heard of teaching skills that matter. Thank you, Julie. Julie said projects are very learner centered. Can anybody type yes or no if you've heard of TSTM, Teaching Skills That Matter?

You may not have. It's pretty new. It's only a few years old. Thank you, Lisa. Awesome. So I had the opportunity for the last few years to be a coach for teaching skills that matter. It's a federal initiative of OCTAE. And it's pretty new. It's only a few years old so that's why you haven't heard it. It's rolling out slowly in the states that have adopted it. It's not going to be brought down hard from above like you have to do this, but it's lessons that include the soft skills.

Some of you been teaching long enough that maybe you remember back in the what, '90s? The SCANS competencies-- well, it's like that, but they've renamed and they call it teaching-- the skills that matter. So these are the skills that matter. The students need to have these different soft skills to be able to succeed in the workplace and in college classes, in high school classes in life, basically. And you can see those there. Yes, it is a better name than SCANS, right? Skills that matter.

And so within that, there is which you can access for free a tool kit. And in this toolkit, project-based learning is one of the different methods for getting students these skills that matter. And there are several lesson plans for ESL adult secondary and ABE. And I've pulled out the lesson plans that you can click on and see that are specifically projects, project-based lesson plans.

So these are aligned to the standards. And some of them if you teach ESL, corresponds really well with a lot of our EL Civics COAAPs. So the one that I saw and I thought, this is so perfect for my class. This one is really perfect. Because every year we have something called-- yes, I'm going to share-- thank you, Susan. I'm going to share the link to these slides right at the end and you'll be able to click all of these hyperlinks to get to all of these.

But these are the different areas that these lesson plans fall into. Civics literacy, digital literacy, financial literacy, health literacy, and workforce preparation. So there are many other lesson plans. There are integrated education lesson plans, as well as problem-based lesson plans. But these are the project-based. So every year, we have at our school a diversity day. And I thought, hmm, that folk story lesson plan would go really well with the diversity day.

Why don't I have my students create some sort of technology infused project to tell a folk story from their country? But when I looked at this lesson plan, it is a digital literacy lesson plan and there's very much minimal there as far as building up the language. It's like the lesson is great, but it basically says, have your students explore a folk story and present it using one of these tools. And I thought that's not enough for a lesson for me. I can't just do that.

I need-- they don't even maybe understand what a folk story is. So what I have created is a complete lesson plan that you could use with your class. So you when you get these slides, you can click here and have all the lesson materials that I use successfully with my class. Now I teach an advanced class, but you can modify it down definitely.

So what I did is I went on to YouTube and I found, I think it must be a middle school teacher who created this silly video, what is a folktale? And I created a listening close. So students watch that video and they have to fill in the missing words. Now this could be done online. I don't know if you've heard of live worksheets. That could be a way that students do that purely online and avoid paper, but it is possible to do that without paper, OK?

So then the next activity, I love this kind of listening and structured retail activity. So I'm going to actually have you participate in this activity. So once students know what a folktale is, what I tell them is, OK, I've created a PowerPoint slideshow with pictures and I print out the slides on one or two pages so they're little blocks. And I tell students you're going to listen to me tell you a folk story. And on your printout of the slides, you're going to take notes.

Anything that will help you remember this story because once I have finished, you are then going to retell this story to a partner. And I did all of this in Zoom and I've done this before and face to face, but actually, it works out pretty well in Zoom. So I'm going to tell you this story. And this story has a twist at the end. This story is from a book called Still More Stories to Solve, Fourth Folktales From Around the World by George Shannon.

He collected folktales from around the world, some are very old. And this one is from Pakistan, I believe. OK, so I'm going to tell you the story and you tell me if you can solve the problem at the end. So I told the story, students take notes. They go into Zoom, they retell the story using the pictures on the slides and then they have to solve the problem. OK, are you ready? Here we go.

So this story is called "The Brahman's Wish." Once there was a Brahman who lived with his wife and his old blind mother. They were very poor and the Brahman was not sure what he should do. He prayed every day at the temple to Siva and asked for guidance. After 12 years of praying, Siva told the Brahman that he could have one wish. Whatever he needed or desired the most.

Uncertain, the Brahman asked to go home and consult his mother and wife. Very wise man. [laughs] What do you think? What do you think? What are they? Well, of course, the Brahman's mother said she wished for her eyesight back. The Brahman would have been glad to grant her wish and thanks for all she had done raising him. But the Brahman's wife wished for a son most of all.

She said your mother is old and she has little time to see. A son would help us in the fields when we are old. The poor Brahman. He didn't know what to do. He didn't want to say no to either one. How can you say no to your mother or your wife? He walked and cried and cried and walked until finally, he sat down in the center of the town.

Many people walked past before Sergeant stopped and asked, what's wrong? The Brahman told him how after praying to Siva for 12 years, he had been granted only one wish. But my mother wants one thing and my wife wants another. How can I choose whose wish to fulfill? I love them both. The Sergeant smiled and said, no need to cry. Your problem is small. Then he told the Brahman exactly what to do.

The next day when the Brahman returned to Siva, both his mother and his wife had their wishes fulfilled. What had the Sergeant told him to say and do? What do you think? You can unmute yourself if you have any idea or share in the chat. What do you think is the solution?

Believe it or not I had-- he wished for his mother to-- ah! Good one. Yes, you're right. Here is the solution. So anyway, students go into breakout rooms. They retell the story along-- I do this much slower and ask questions along the way. But I'm going kind of fast because you all are at a much higher level with your English proficiency. But then they come up with the solution, we come back. I hear their solutions and then I give them the answer which is, yes, you're right.

The Sergeant advised him to combine the two wishes into one. When the Brahman went to Siva he said, my mother is blind and her only desire is to see her grandson eating his rice. So I learned about this activity at my very first CATESOL conference back in 1999. But I made it added in the technology. So now students had some language practice. They understand better what a folk story is, and then what I did after that is we worked on some grammar preparation pronunciation with past tense, past continuous. That's what we use to tell stories.

And then I demonstrated and gave them print instructions, as well as video tutorials how to either make a PowerPoint slide show with narration exported to as a video or to use Adobe Spark Video, which is really easy. And one of my students created a beautiful folk story from China using Adobe Spark Video and she presented that at our diversity day.

So they learned so much from each other. The assignment I had them also explain what that folk story tells about their culture or the beliefs as well. So it got really rich, much-- no offense to the writer of the folk story digital literacy lesson, but I thought it took it to another level. And if you teach ABE, you don't necessarily have students from other countries. We have so many beautiful Native American stories that need to be told.

And we have a lot of the traditional stories that I don't even-- I don't even know them, I've heard of them. But it would be a really fun project for your students to integrating language, integrating technology and sharing with each other. So this is that project prompt, all right? And so they were able to find mostly in English. The version of their folk story from their country. But a couple of them, they just remembered it. They wrote it out in English and they asked me to check it over before they added their narration.

So this is more about the project prompt, the technical part of it, OK? So that's one project. I have so many here to tell you about. I learned about this one just by, you know, sometimes you're on online and you're just searching and you go down a rabbit hole. And I was like, what is this book bento? Book bento, well, you maybe if you know much about Japanese culture, maybe you've seen these bento lunches. And so book bento is a book report with visuals that look like a bento box.

So it's basically, you could do this for a book, a chapter, a short story. I would love to do this even for the digital icebreaker type of thing that you have students do the first week to get to know each other, is have them do this for that activity. That's my next plan. But what I want to show you is what I created as kind of a model for a reading festival book that we're reading.

So basically, book bento is a metaphor for a traditional book report. Those would be incredibly boring to read in this day and age, right? With all that we have at our disposal as far as technology. So it's more of a visual representation of a book review or summary with images that represent the character setting and plot of the book. So students are building their visual literacy. So here are many different links to visit and learn more. And again, this is coming from K through 12. So we can learn so many things from those books.

So here's a quote about book bento boxes. There are recent reader response strategy. And they have students reflect on what they've read. And it's really seeing students go beyond writing a summary, but thinking creative critically using their visual arts and using technology. So this is the one I created. We every spring and we just had this past week. We invite a published author to our school and we have a reading festival.

And this particular year, just last week, we had a woman who is a professor both at our college, as well as the universities nearby. And she wrote this beautiful book. I get emotional think of it. It's so good. Anyway, she grew up in our area. And her book while it's fiction, I really believe it is semi-autobiographical.

And so I created this as a sample for our students. And I have here depicted some of the chapters. The chapters were really short that really resonated and stuck with me like that. In one chapter, her father had to go and work as a migrant field worker in Idaho. And their traditional cures like the teas and using the egg. I don't know if any of you are familiar with that cure.

Then her father became an alcoholic. And at one point, her father feeling pressure from family members. Actually, beat her with a belt, even though that was against his personal parenting belief. And at one point in the beginning, she and her sister-- her sister was a real entrepreneur when they were little sold popsicles during the summer.

So what students do is they find objects and they use the technology that they have their cell phone and take a picture and they arrange. And then they write a short reflection piece. I think this would be so much more interesting as a presentation for a chapter of a book or for a book report. So I don't know if in ESL you're teaching books, but there are some really short easy to read books out there.

I think we should do more of this. And this would be a great project for our ESL. And obviously in ABE, you are probably teaching short novels. But it could be a personal presentation where students gather some different objects and make a short presentation about why these objects represent who they are. So what do you think of that project? Do you like it? Oh, Sheila, you lived in Japan.

I didn't arrange this very bento looking, but anyway. When you go here, you can see all kinds of really amazing samples as well. Yeah. Christina, I don't have that available, but maybe I can add that to this slide show. Our library-- I'm part of a college so our library is so wonderful. They have a special link. A special page just for our non-credit students that have these very short biographies. Now they're written for middle school kids, but our students don't know that. Our adult students don't know that. There are biographies.

And then I just like to look for since I'm teaching immigrants, the immigrant lit that is typically for kids like, for example, Francisco Jimenez. If you know him, he presented at TESOL in San Jose back two years ago. Yes, diversity and culture. And the more that we can let students show who they are and honor their diversity and their culture, I think that's wonderful, Sheila. Thank you.

Oh, I love it, Susan. Assigned a similar, assignment who am I. That could be like-- this is very similar, right? And then, this doesn't take a lot of technology. Probably 99% of our students have phones. All they have to do is gather some objects that they have in their home and take a photo, right? It's quite simple.

So I don't know if you're familiar with OTAN's teaching with technology page. Can you type yes or no if you are familiar with that? Unfortunately, Diana you better be. [laughs] OK, so teaching with technology is been around-- I was first involved with that-- I think we started back around 2007, anyway. It turned into this enormous repository of like 1,000 different websites. And it was just too big and unwieldy.

So we are undergoing a transformation of the teaching with technology database. Because it was so big, it was becoming not very useful. So what we are doing, we're in the process of changing that to be full lesson plans with technology. Because we want you to be able to go there and see and sort by, OK, I need a lesson-- yes, Diana. I need a lesson with these standards or for this level or this topic, or maybe even this kind of technology. And to find a lesson plan that you can take and use or take and modify.

So these are some that I have contributed recently. And they are things that I've used in my class with success. And I teach, again, advanced level ESL. So they're a little bit on the higher end. Of course, they would be perfect for ABE. You would need to figure out if you teach more of a lower level ESL, how you would change that? So let me check my time. I have a little bit of time left. I want you to share just a couple that my students told me they enjoyed. OK.

The first one I will share and this is bringing in knowledge, building background knowledge is advertising. So I know at my college that there is a communications course where one of the assignments is that students learn about the three argument types-- rhetorical strategies, ethos, logos, and pathos. And I thought my students some of them have bachelor's and master's degrees probably already know about this. But why not teach them about this?

So do you know the website read, write, think? Can you type yes or no in the chat? OK, read, write, think if you've never looked there, go there. It is for K through 12, but there are a lot of great resources there. And there was a gentleman that he created a video and he has a lesson, but it's not exactly for our audience. So I wanted to steal it out into a full project and I used his video where students listen and take notes and they learn and they see examples in advertising of ethos, pathos, and logos. OK.

So there is a full lesson plan. This could take a couple of weeks, this lesson plan, OK? So when you go to here, this is available right now on the OTAN website. And my students really like this project. Really, really do. OK. And that picture is really huge. I didn't put that there. But anyway, so they're watching this art of rhetoric. Learning academic vocabulary rhetoric, wow, you know?

For an ESL student, some of them do know what rhetoric means. They have that cognate, right? But they watch that video. I'm not going to show you the whole lesson plan, but there are lots of-- you see all these documents that you can download and modify for use. But what I want to show you is the end product that students created in my class.

So there's that video from read, write, think. And we're following the WIPPEA model. Are you familiar with that WIPPEA? Can you type yes or no in the chat? OK, WIPPEA is the stages of a lesson plan. Warm-up or review, OK? Warm-up or review, introduction, presentation, practice, evaluation, application. OK, yes, you do know something. So what I did is I created this shared Google slideshow.

They've learned all about, and we did lots of practice looking at different commercials that I just took from YouTube. And we analyze, huh, is this pathos, logos, or ethos? There's an additional reading that breaks it down to different features of each of those main rhetorical types. And so then what we did from there-- is my time up? Is my time up, Carla?

Carla: No, you're still good.

Kristi Reyes: OK.

Carla: We go to 11:15.

Kristi Reyes: Thank you. I got lost in the time.

Carla: Yeah, you're good.

Kristi Reyes: There's a whole bunch that happens before this, OK? But there's this shared Google slideshow and I put in a YouTube video and I give my sample. So they have to watch the video together. It's a group project. They did this in Zoom in breakout rooms. And so class time given for group projects. So the company what is the product or service? What is the message? What is the advertising strategy or strategies, the rhetorical strategy? Pathos, and then this is from the reading. OK.

The reading talks about ideal family, pull on heartstrings, prevention of negative. And then they had to discuss together, would you buy this product or use this service based on this advertisement? And then, you can see this was some I chose. This was I chose my favorite. [laughs] I chose my favorite commercials. Some from the Super Bowl, of course. Those are always the best ones, right?

So this was their work. You see they work together. And then I gave them other options that their group tended not to like the commercials that I provided. So that is a full, full lesson plan that you can use or modify with an end product that students can do individually or together. I provided the commercial the advertisement, but you could have them go and search for one that they like. That could be possible, OK?

And actually, part of the lesson 2 was before they did this group project, I had a palette too, and that's in the lesson plan. It's one of the practice activities is they just posted on the palette a commercial that they liked and why before thinking about and learning more about rhetorical strategies. So it was highly successful. I always check in with my students, what did you like? What didn't you like? This was one favorite project and assignment that they loved.

So the other projects that I want to tell you about is-- well, I'll just talk about these ones. One is because some teaching ESL, students from all around the world like the rest of you teaching ESL and even those of you teaching ABE. You've had students come up from the ESL program a digital film about a holiday or celebration. That one was wonderful. It's a full lesson plan.

And I love this one. I just did this one. I've changed it over the years. Now my students are instead of writing paragraphs, they're writing essays. That's kind of the demographic shift that we've seen with our immigrants, maybe you've noticed that. They're coming more prepared. But students use the internet to do some research about their first name, what does it mean? And it's been beautiful because first of all, someone here said they lived in Japan.

The Japanese naming system, wow. Your name can determine your life trajectory, same for Chinese. But then students learn some things about themselves. A lot of them did not know why their parents chose their names so they had to find out. It's such a beautiful. Because part of their personal and life history and then they make a presentation about it. It's really-- I love that project. Yeah.

Another one, again, because I'm teaching ESL, but this could be for ABE. It could be symbols of my hometown, OK? So we do this whole learning about symbols. And what they do then is write a paragraph and make a presentation or a digital story about symbols of their native country. What are the main things that the world recognizes of their country and what do they symbolize?

The last one that I'll talk about is the personal logo project. This is one that students also tell me that they loved. They really love. So with this one, it's a multilayered lesson plan. It has so much going on here. So there are all the documents that you can use and modify for your use right here. And the standards are all there as you see.

And we have some conversation, and there is even, I think it's a Kahoot game that you show different logos and then they have to recognize what is the company. And so the introduction is that, the logos Kahoot, right? And I didn't make that, I just found it. So then what they do is first is I demonstrate this website, FamousLogos.net. Everything from sports teams to fast food companies even rock bands have logos.

And so I demonstrate how they use this and then they go find a logo of a product, a company, or anything that they like and they fill out their slide on a shared slide show. Their slide they put in the logo and they find some information about the logo. So who established it? What did the colors represent? What does the design represent and so forth? And then I introduced the project.

So for the project what they do then is some-- oh, sorry, more practice. They learn about the different types of logos, like, there is a special name. You know the Google logo how it changes with a Google doodles, there's a special name for that. I didn't even know that. And then they learn about the hidden meanings between the Baskin-Robbins. There's hidden meanings behind many different logos. So they do some listening and note taking language building. And I included a reading from a textbook here that I didn't include the actual document, but if you want to include reading.

And then they create their own personal logo. Write about it and present it. So there are a couple of places that they can do this. But I tell them if you are artistic, you can draw and paint if you want to. There is the Canva logo maker and there's the Looka logo maker. So first, they need to think about important things that they want the world to know about them. And what kind of imagery would represent that.

So then they do the writing, get feedback on the writing and make a presentation-- a slideshow. So let me just show you some samples of the logos that they created. This was from summer 2021. Here's my sample. Oh, I have an apple because I'm a teacher and that is the symbol of our profession. I have behind part of the logo of the school I work for because that all my professional life has been spent at that school. I have an open hand because my profession is a caring profession.

And finally, I have a heart with wings because teaching is my passion and my goal is to give students wings to fly. [laughs] So this was Valerie. She's a professional photographer. I love this one. This is Pan. Julie, maybe you had Pan as a student at one point. Pan, you see then her name is there, but she was so funny because she said a snail is a hermaphrodite.

Well, she's not a hermaphrodite herself. She is taking on the role of mother and father because she is alone here with her kids. And she has to do both duty of mother and father. So I thought that was a really-- but just to show you a couple others. Look at the different styles. All kinds of different styles. So they had to use visual literacy. They had to explain in writing.

And this one, this turned-- he has his own business so now he has a logo for his business, too. This one was really interesting. A student from Iran. This was a basis of a letter he wrote to President Obama. Just really, it was a great first project where I got to know the students so much better and the symbolism. Yeah. Isn't it wonderful?

So I think my time is almost up. So I'll just finish up by telling you that these are all links to different projects that you can download and use. They're not full, full lesson plans yet. They're more like project prompts and examples that my students have made. But they're going to be fleshed out into full lesson plans to be available on the teaching with technology database on OTAN. Here are a couple of others is sometimes fun to team up with another class.

This one was so-- you can differentiate the technology. In this case, we talked about heroes. And I made a Google slides template because I do this intake form and I find out students technology skills. But this student, you can see that she ended up putting her whole presentation, her whole project on one slide. Because she had little to no technology skills.

On the other hand, giving students choice and autonomy. I have this other student who has traveled around the world has a drone, OK? And has her YouTube channel. And having her make a Google slide presentation for her project about her hero was kind of like taking many steps backwards. So of course, she made a video. So that's the wonderful thing that we can do. We can differentiate.

OK. So anyway, choice boards are a way we can differentiate. This one's very busy, but so you want to make them more simple. And finally, about project ideas. What you're interested in, what your students are interested in. That's what you should do your projects on. And there are other sources listed here. My time is up. You can get the slides in the chat. I'm going to do that right now or you can email me if you need to run out. Let me go ahead and put those slides in the chat right this moment. Thank you for joining me.