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Speaker 1: OTAN, Outreach and Technical Assistance Network.

Susan Gaer: So welcome. We are cheerleaders for AI, and we believe it saves us time, and it's going to rock our world. My name is Susan Gaer. I'm from OTAN. I'm a subject matter expert, if I can say it, and thank you for coming.

Debbie Jensen: Oh, I'm Debbie Jensen. This has been a remarkable journey as we've learned more about AI and what's been happening, particularly since November. And so we wanted to share what we learned with you, so that you can get excited, too. I'm a retired ABE teacher, but I love OTAN and I'm still there.

Kristi Reyes: Hi, I'm Kristie Reyes. I'm subject matter expert with OTAN and an ESL teacher--

[interposing voices]

Well, thank you. Gosh. And I'm an ESL teacher at MiraCosta College. I just finished my 25th year. I know. I'm still walking. Retirement is a ways off, unfortunately. But you probably started seeing it right after the first of the year, if you read news at all, this like-- oh, ChatGPT-3, it's-- [ INAUDIBLE ] oh, my God, students are going to cheating and plagiarizing!

But the way we view it is like, oh my gosh, this is the same thing people thought of when students started using their cell phones in class. And my great mentor here is like, students are going to use them anyway. So how can we wrap our arms around this and make it part of what we do?

Susan Gaer: Like using calculators in math. You know how long that took?

Debbie Jensen: Yeah.

Kristi Reyes: Mm-hmm. Yes. Probably without even knowing it, you probably have AI in your life already. Have you ever been using your email and you start typing something and it kind of predicts what you're-- that is AI.

If you have an iPhone that you scan your face to enter, that is AI. We are surrounded by AI and more. There is this list than the resources that we'll share of I get this email, we've just added 83 more AI tools this week. It's exploding. So we're just going to talk about a couple, OK? Just a couple today just to whet your appetite.

Susan Gaer: And we're going to let you know right now that we love it. So we hope to convert you.

Debbie Jensen: AI cheerleaders.

Susan Gaer: Yes.

Kristi Reyes: Yes. So I think this is--

Susan Gaer: OK, so this is what we're going to do today. We're going to look at ChatGPT-3 and we're going to show you how wonderful it is for you and your students. We're going to look at Dall-E 2. Do you know about Dall-E 2? We're going to look at that, because we don't have to worry about copyright. It's open source, and it makes pictures-- and not always the perfect pictures, but it gets better. AI gets better the more we use it.

Kristi Reyes: Mm-hmm.

[interposing voices]

[side conversation]

Susan Gaer: OK, so yeah. And then we're going to have some comments and questions. That's what we're planning to do today. Here's the next slide. So I think that you.

Debbie Jensen: That's me.

Susan Gaer: OK.

[interposing voices]

Debbie Jensen: All right, so this is the official definition. ChatGPT-3 is an AI, artificial intelligence, text generator tool that can answer questions, write content, and develop conversations and dialogue. It is a natural language tool to respond to its user prompts. That was not friendly. I hope-- I don't know what that means.

Susan Gaer: Make sure you talk to the computer, because they can't hear you. Yeah. OK.

[side conversation]

Debbie Jensen: OK. All right, this is what I was able to glean. It's certainly making a big splash. Quote, "ChatGPT is scary good. We're not far from dangerously strong AI," says Elon Musk, who was one of the founders of Open AI before leaving, also adding that this is the fastest growing-- what do we call it?

Kristi Reyes: Technology--

Susan Gaer: Tool.

Kristi Reyes: --tool.

Debbie Jensen: Tool. They were able to get more than a million users in the first five days. So it's explosive. And the thing is this is human-like conversations. So you can type something in, it'll respond, it responds, it responds. So it's very, very cool. All right?

Kristi Reyes: Yeah, and one thing I would add. It's not Google. So you know when you search Google-- I'm almost starting to hate Google. Yeah, you search, and what are the first results for about a page of scrolling? Ads, right? So you're clicking, finally find something that might be useful, you have to click on it, you have to read it, you have to synthesize that. Is that quite-- let me check the next one, whereas ChatGPT, it's not searching Google for you. It's not using an algorithm to grab things from the internet.

It has been fed data, not just from the internet, but from-- it does translations, different languages, even. So some data was fed to it by people and machines, not just from the internet, but all kinds of sources. We're going to see the limitations in a moment. If you search for something on ChatGPT that happened yesterday? No. No, because there was a cutoff. But since--

Susan Gaer: 21. The cutoff is 21.

Kristi Reyes: Now Google is coming out with Bard, if you've heard that, which will be integrated with ChatGPT. And Bing, of course, Microsoft has poured millions-- well, I don't know, maybe even billions of dollars into it. And now with Bing, maybe you saw, there was a reporter about two weeks ago, if you saw that in the news that he was playing with Bing, and he said this was the most disturbing thing how Bing was like being flirtatious and things with him.

But it is fed by human content, right? It's artificial intelligence, so when we don't get the response we want, it learns from us. So that's why you need to keep working with it, and the important thing is asking the right prompts. Just like with Google, you know? Don't put in the right search you don't quite get what you're looking for, you regenerate the content with the right prompts. And that's called prompt engineering.

So how do you even get there? Well, everybody's like, what is this? Is this an app? No, it's a website. You just go to ChatGPT. We have the link here. I just created an account, link it with my Google account. Some people are worried about privacy. Come and arrest me if you want to.

You can link it with your Google account, or you can create an account with an email, and then you just go in and you ask it a question, and it will give you some responses. You don't get quite what you want, you don't start a new query. You just ask it, can you please modify that to tell me this? Very simple to use, free, but because it's got so many people really anxiously and excitedly interested in it, sometimes when you go on, you can't get in immediately. So they just came out with a $20 a month subscription. I would never pay for that. I haven't had any problems. Have you?

Debbie Jensen: No.

Susan Gaer: I mean, maybe once at a very high volume time I tried to get in, and it gave me like about a minute. It said, our servers are very busy right now or something, and I was able to get in pretty quickly.

Speaker 2: I've written some reading comprehension [ INAUDIBLE ] ZDNET.

Susan Gaer: Yes.

Speaker 2: And I found that if I say 25 questions, give me a 25-question reading-comprehension quiz on the Rocking Horse Manor, it'll be fine. But if you say 50 questions, it's cycles and then it times out, and it just kind of closes.

Susan Gaer: Because you're asking for too much information.

Speaker 2: Yeah.

Susan Gaer: [ INAUDIBLE ]

So this was a prompt that we put into ChatGPT, and the prompt was, describe a principle that you applied to your life. Explain what this principle means to you, and how you have applied it to your life. And this was actually a prompt that I had for my students in Afghanistan that they were going to write a paragraph about this. And so I put it in because I wanted to see what the output would be, and this is what I got.

And this is key for the whole thing that teachers worry about cheating. This is not a human being. This is a chat bot. This is AI. And it'll always tell you, I don't have personal experience. So what your students need to do in their essays is include personal experiences, and you will never have to worry about them cheating with AI, because it says right here, I don't have personal experiences or emotions, but I'll describe a principle that could be applied to one's life. If you get a paragraph like this, you'll know it's ChatGPT.

So you've got to get your students changing the way they write. They need to put in their personal experience. They need to put in their emotion. They need to put in their feelings. You know what? I use ChatGPT. I use it to help frame me what I want to say. I don't think that's cheating. Maybe some of you do. I don't know. But I don't.

And so then I take the frame, and I can put in my own personal experiences. I can put my own emotions in there, and I have a piece of writing that's pretty darn good. It's a lot easier than starting from scratch where you don't even know where to go from. So this is the one thing I want to show you. This cannot do that, OK? It will never be able to do emotion or personal experience. So as long as you ask your students to input that into their writing, you won't have any cheating problem. Yes?

Speaker 2: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: It will correct your grammar for you if you ask it.

Susan Gaer: You can even plug in your own writing prompt and ask the AI, how well did I write this? And it will give you feedback on your writing. And it's pretty darn good feedback.

Speaker 2: You can also ask it if I'm writing in APA or MLA. [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: So this is the thing that when I did that and I saw that it said that to me, that I don't want that, I said, that's it. I'm just going to have my students make sure they always have to have a personal experience, always have to have a sensitivity to.

Kristi Reyes: And have them include class discussions, to reference class discussions would be another way. And Debbie's going to be talking specifically to using it for writing, but there are a few-- I think some of you might know Quill. It's a great website for students to practice grammar and things. Quill, along with another organization, created a ChatGPT checker, because at first, turnitin.com said they couldn't check for it. But now even turnitin.com said they can.

And then a college student who is a programmer, he created a tool, but you want to be really cautious, right? What if students turn in a piece of writing, you run it through one of these ChatGPT checkers, and it pops up saying that it's plagiarized?

Susan Gaer: Or it would say written by AI.

Kristi Reyes: Well, I mean, and you went and accused a student of that--

Susan Gaer: And it's not true.

Kristi Reyes: --and it's not true, right? So that's why we really need to rethink how we teach writing. We're really going to have to do that.

Susan Gaer: And I also put in my students writing. I put it into four different AI checkers and randomly they said it's AI, it's not AI, it's AI, it's not AI. So that's not really a good way to do it. I think you're underestimating our students. And our students need to know how to use AI.

Kristi Reyes: Yes. I just saw an article about-- go ahead.

Speaker 2: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: I haven't seen that happen. I don't know. It's so new. I haven't seen it happen yet, but I'm even careful with Turnitin, because I don't trust Turnitin 100%, either. Turnitin, if you click on it, it'll show you what sentences they think are copied, and then I just check that. Is that really copied, or is it just student rephrasing something?

Speaker 2: So on your chat, I can't hear much.

Susan Gaer: Oh, they can't hear the questions.

Kristi Reyes: OK, so we'll just have to repeat the questions.

Susan Gaer: Yeah, we'll repeat.

Kristi Reyes: We'll repeat the question.

Susan Gaer: Sorry. So what was the question?

Speaker 3: It's really my own original writing, does it then become a published something?

Susan Gaer: Yeah, so does Turnitin.com take your own writing and turn it into a published something? But I don't know the answer.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah, does anybody here teach the higher-level writing that you use turnitin.com?

Susan Gaer: Well, I use turnitin.com.

Speaker 3: I don't think [ INAUDIBLE ] And then [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Yeah.

Debbie Jensen: Right.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah.

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ] read a paper, or read [ INAUDIBLE ] that paper is [ INAUDIBLE ] and in [ INAUDIBLE ] And it [ INAUDIBLE ] plagiarized.

[interposing voices]

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ] having a discussion [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Turnitin.com, we're told, will tell you that you've plagiarized yourself.

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: OK, so let's go back to get out of Turnitin [ INAUDIBLE ] So we can go back to how we can use AI. And so we've generated a whole bunch of ideas of ways that you could use AI. Number one is you can generate conversation questions for students and have the students answer the questions and AI will respond, so you have a natural conversation partner. You can generate dialogues that target grammar and vocabulary and situations relevant to your students' lives. It is an incredible tool for speaking prompts.

For writing and grammar, you can teach students about different registers. You can teach them summarization and paraphrasing, and you can generate model paragraphs and essays for your students. And I want to say something about the summarization and paraphrasing. I teach my students-- and I'm working with students in Afghanistan-- I teach them to use ChatGPT, but to cite that they used it. And that way, I know that they're using some form of ChatGPT. And I think if we just teach them how to cite it, that would be better than saying, don't use something that they're going to use.

Speaker 5: So are you suggesting that they use ChatGPT the same way that we use Wikipedia?

Susan Gaer: Sure. Why not? I mean, they're going to use it. OK? So you might as well come to terms with we have to change the way we teach.

Debbie Jensen: Well, if you ask ChatGPT how to cite it, it will tell you. It will give you the format to put it into paper.

Susan Gaer: OK, vocabulary, you led your students with a vocabulary list. They can put that list in ChatGPT and it will generate a whole bunch of sentences for the vocabulary that your students need to learn. So you can have ChatGPT write sentences with the vocabulary that you've taught them. I think that's a fantastic tool for students to see the way vocabulary is used in practice.

Speaker 5: Yeah, but then how do you distinguish? Like, if I see a student that are on Zoom. I want everybody to come up with an idiom. I can tell that half of them have just googled, what's a common idiom? Because they come up with the same ones. Half of them, I can tell if they're original thoughts or something that's in their head, and then half of them-- how do you have them [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: I would rephrase the way I have them do that activity, and perhaps give them context for the idiom, and make them look at idioms from a certain context so that it's not just wide open. I think if you give more parameters, you'd have better luck there.

In materials development, you already [ INAUDIBLE ] knows the reading comprehension questions. You can put in a reading, and it will generate all the questions for you plus the answers. So you don't have to do that. That's saving you time as a teacher, right?

And the last one is instruction. It will give you good ideas for ways to approach a topic that you wouldn't think about approaching. It's an amazing tool for teachers. I've put in a whole bunch of stuff like, I was doing this language and thinking class, and I had to compare Martin Luther King's Birmingham speech with somebody else that I can't remember. I had no idea [ INAUDIBLE ] to put it together.

Well, I put it into ChatGPT. It gave me the framework for the relationship. And then I put my own experiences and said, OK, Martin Luther King said, and in my experience, blah, blah, blah. [ INAUDIBLE ] It saved me a lot of time. So it's even good for instruction.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah, I think I just want to go back to one thing is-- I think you mentioned something about having students get answers to questions they have. Is it like Wikipedia? Well, they should not just trust ChatGPT. It lies. It does lie sometimes. It's not 100% accurate.

Debbie Jensen: Or it's misinformed.

Kristi Reyes: It's misinformed, because it's been fed human data and we're misinformed sometimes. So we'll talk, again--

Susan Gaer: It has a lot of biases.

Kristi Reyes: It does have a lot of biases. A lot of the AI does. So one thing I did and I've seen in different groups that I'm, listservs and things, it will write a lesson plan. It will write a rubric. I mean, it's going to save us a lot of time. So these are really teacher uses, first of all.

How are we going to have students use it? That's kind of not really been widely talked about as much. But it saves us tons of time by some of these uses.

Debbie Jensen: We're going to talk about it.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah, we will talk about it. Like for vocabulary, I don't know if any of you teach the academic word list. And there's a website that I like to use. It's called the Academic Word List Highlighter. And I would copy in some text.

This will do that for you, too. You just put in a text, and you ask it to separate out the academic word list words with definitions, with sample sentences. There's my vocabulary lesson. Because I'm always having to think, what's a sample sentence that I can help students as a frame for them to use about themselves? It's going to save us just a whole bunch of time, really, really.

I think textbook writers-- this is one-- are a little bit nervous, because sometimes there is a content that I want to teach, but I'm not finding it in the textbook. I'm finding something online, but it's not at the level written for my English language learners. I can copy and paste it in there from the internet and ask it to write it in a simpler language form.

And Susan mentioned register. How many times do our students send us an email and it's like, that's not quite how you should be addressing an instructor? And so going to student uses, having students use it to learn how to express themselves more formally and academically.

So again, student uses, shorter brainstorm. Not as many things happening because of the fear, but we shouldn't fear it. But if you do teach English language learners, for example-- and I don't know. I don't know the occupations and life experiences of all my learners, but occasionally, they tell me, I need to go to talk to x. I need to talk to my kid's teacher about this problem. I need to talk to my boss about this coworker. I don't know how to say it.

Sometimes I don't know how to say it. I don't know all of their workplaces. We can help students learn how to use it by putting in a prompt, write a conversation for me in formal language asking my boss to change my work schedule. And it will create a conversation for them, a dialogue.

So generating dialogues for all kinds of difficult conversations, whether it's a job interview. I know those common job interview questions, but they may have changed from the last time I learned about all of that. And maybe my student is applying for a job as a mechanical engineer. How can I know the questions for that? I have no knowledge in that field. Students could go there and ask ChatGPT to generate a list of job interview questions for a mechanical engineer, and it will come up with questions for them specific to their career area or their job.

So that's one. Another way that we can start to help students use this tool is just to generate ideas. So I'm sure you do this as part of the writing process, or when you're having students do a project where you have them work together to generate ideas. And sometimes it can come out really fantastically, and other times you're just like, do I have to tell you the ideas, because they're not going anywhere. This could be another tool to help them further their brainstorm list of generating ideas, whether it's for a writing assignment or a project, for example.

Next we have, well, writing and grammar. How many of you do teach writing? Oh, my gosh. At the lower levels, like if you're teaching beginning ESL, it's very formulaic. My name is, fill in the blank, copy it. Right? But once we get to the higher levels of writing, whether that's paragraph or essay, it's hours of work, isn't it? First you're giving feedback on content, and then again feedback on content, then taking that revision. I was in a session earlier today where someone said their student revised something nine times. And I was thinking, oh, my goodness. My classes are only eight weeks long.

[interposing voices]

--how we can cut out the middleman just a little bit-- not a lot, but a little bit, we're students paste in a paragraph they've written and ask first, going with a writing process content first, how can I make this better? Then secondarily, what grammar errors do I have in this? What punctuation errors? But it's not just going to correct. We can train students to ask ChatGPT to locate the errors and explain.

Now does this mean our jobs are going to be obsolete? I hope not. I don't think so. I don't think so. OK? I don't think so. Because of the human element, students still need to be taught how to write. They still need to be taught how to write.

Speaker 5: Can you show [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Yeah. We'll try to get to that, yeah. We were worried that if we tried to get you all on ChatGPT that you would get that message that, oh, come back later because too many people are using. But we'll try to get to that at the end, yes.

What else do we have? Writing and grammar we talked about. Do you use rubrics when you teach writing? So here's something that Debbie's going to be talking about. But the blank page can be so intimidating, and students need models. Do we have time to write models? Maybe you have some tried and true writing lessons where you have those model pieces of writing, but that's not always realistic.

Well, what we can do in the beginning stages of teaching writing is to ask students, put in a prompt and see what you come up with. Now compare ChatGPT's prompt with this rubric, and how would you improve ChatGPT's work? So they're really starting to think critically about what is good writing.

Let me see what else do we have here for writing and vocabulary? Sometimes students, I assign them to do some work with vocabulary and they're having to look at multiple websites. Like they go to a dictionary to get the definition. They go to thesaurus.com. Sometimes if it's idioms, I like them to look up the etymology. Where did this come from, the story behind it? They don't have to go to multiple websites. They can get it all in one place with sample sentences, as we talked about.

It does translations pretty well. I saw a gentleman who teaches English in Japan. He has a very long YouTube video talking about this. And he put in all kinds of asking it for translations, and it came out really well, he said, in Japanese. My husband is a native English speaker, and I had him check. Or Spanish speaker, I'm sorry. And so I put in, please explain something like an idiom raining cats and dogs in Spanish, and give me an example. And it did it very well, even in Spanish. Now I tell students teaching English language learning, you need to kind of back off from just translating, but there's a translation tool that not just gives a word-for-word translation, it gives it in a context with examples.

Couple more things here. Generate sentences, when I'm teaching vocabulary, the research shows the students can use the vocabulary. In speaking and writing about themselves, they will retain those new words better. So I always, at the beginning, at least, give them a sentence frame, because they're not sure. But then I back off. But they could use that as a resource to come up with some sentences about themselves, or to write a story with some newly-learned vocabulary.

And learning in general. I mean, you've probably seen through the pandemic, when we went to online instruction, we kind of brought in new students into our programs who work all the time or have no child care, and so they can study online. Right? So this is their little study buddy, ChatGPT. It can be a written conversation buddy. It can be a tutor for them, a language partner.

And often in class we do this activity think, pair, share. What I've seen some recommend is think, pair, now let's check ChatGPT. Let's pair again and then share. It can be sort of like something to expand their ideas out if they're not coming up with ample ideas for whatever the conversation topic is.

So those are just some things. I mean, this is going to be exploding for students. I don't know. Do your students know about this tool? Very few, right? Go ahead, Marcy.

Speaker 6: I saw an idea where you put like, compare and contrast Coke and Pepsi.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah.

Speaker 6: And in a five paragraph essay or something, and then basically it's kind of this flip mindset for ChatGPT--

Kristi Reyes: It's hard to say.

Speaker 6: --where then you have the student create the graphic organizer, film the graphic organizer from the writing. So usually, we have them the [ INAUDIBLE ] organizers, and then they have to write it. So you know they're using it, so then have them use it and deconstruct it in a different way.

Kristi Reyes: I don't know if everybody in Zoom heard that. Marcy said she saw an idea of using ChatGPT to generate the writing content, and then go back and deconstruct from that to analyze, giving students the analytical skills to see how things are organized and put together.

[side conversation]

All right, Debbie.

Debbie Jensen: Oh. OK, so how do you start? Remember to talk to--

Kristi Reyes: This?

Debbie Jensen: Yeah.

Kristi Reyes: This.

Debbie Jensen: But not too close, because then the picture is blurry. All right, you're going to have to talk [ INAUDIBLE ] students, because if you don't, some know, some don't, and there's going to be an element of [ INAUDIBLE ] like I said. So just include it. You got a syllabus. Include it. Discuss it. Have the students express in their own words the benefits and risks.

Co-construct the norms for use. How do they think it ought to be? How do they think that it might be beneficial?

And then there's going to be things that are not negotiable for you. Make those clear. Have very clear expectations. If they've used ChatGPT, they need to always cite it. OK? Something like that, whatever it is.

Then give them examples so they're very clear on [ INAUDIBLE ] this is a time of a paradigm shift, where what was before and what is after. If we do not prepare them, then what have we done? If everyone else in the workplace is using it at every place, but yet we're not going to, it's like-- my height at my school.

And thank goodness you don't know where it is, because [ INAUDIBLE ] this door, you must not use your cell phone. Must not use your calculator. You must not use ChatGPT.

No, we need to teach them how, and make it a tool for them because-- ? Think about it. Doesn't everybody need a tutor, and wouldn't it be nice that everybody can get the explanations that they need and the help they need? And then we can help guide them in utilizing it so they still learn how to use it.

On the next slide. All right, I'm going to be patient. The reason I got this job today was because these two were so excited for all the ESL things that you can do with the time [ INAUDIBLE ] And some of [ INAUDIBLE ] because, of course, your [ INAUDIBLE ] students are cheating, their fear.

And the next fear is, well, are they going to learn how to write? And then, we know that ChatGPT has biases, because the data that was put in had biases. And so, are we just generating that [ INAUDIBLE ] to it, or even false information?

OK, but now let's look at the benefits. We can include the students in the assessment process. They can be part of the learning of what they're supposed to be learning, that they recognize it, that they can put it into ChatGPT, and then they can evaluate it and the rubric ideas.

We can also change our teaching practices. There was a time, not that long ago, where we used some peer review, where we used primary sources. ChatGPT doesn't have that yet, so we can do that. We could go back to teaching the Socratic method. So we can think through how we can teach in a different way. We can recognize and train AI to reject inappropriate requests. That will take a little time.

But for me, this was the most important one. When my students leave my classroom, I want them prepared for the world out there. And if I haven't prepared them, then I didn't do my job. And ChatGPT is with us, and it's been with us. How many of you use Grammarly? Is that cheating?

Speaker 2: Depends whoever is taking the class.

[interposing voices]

Susan Gaer: It depends on who's taking the class. [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: And just one thing, I don't know if anyone here, you're the social media manager at your school for maybe your school has a Facebook, an Instagram account. That was a pretty new job, right? Well, there's going to be a new job for most companies where they're going to be the ChatGPT sort of generator. That's a new job that our students will need to train for.

Debbie Jensen: How they can use it.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah.

Debbie Jensen: All right, this is from Matt Miller, right?

Susan Gaer: Yeah. It's that textbook.

[interposing voices]

Debbie Jensen: And he posed some interesting questions, but I thought we should look at it. So this is student-created at the bottom, this is bot-created at the top. And which of these would you consider cheating? Which of these is relevant to our students' future? And which of these would you use in your work as an adult?

So now you evaluate. Which of these would you accept and which wouldn't you? Student plugged prompt into AI, copied the response, and submitted it to the teacher. AI created the response, the student read it, edited it, adjusted it, and submitted it.

Student created multiple AI responses, used the best parts, edited and submitted. Student wrote main idea, AI generated a draft, and offered feedback to a group. Student consulted the internet AI for ideas then wrote [ INAUDIBLE ] Or the student wrote all the assignment content without consulting AI or the internet.

Speaker 5: [ INAUDIBLE ]

That's pretty reasonable. You can sit there, and you can see [ INAUDIBLE ] you could fashion and maybe utilize, getting ChatGPT a part of the process.

OK, let's go to the next slide. Now on the left, you see the traditional writing process. We prewrite. If we're going to have research, it's at that point that we research after we figured out what our topic is going to be.

We draft it, we revise it, and we edit and proofread it. That's the tradition. This was created by Glenn M Kleinman, and this is [ INAUDIBLE ] He uses a SPACE framework, and so it's [ INAUDIBLE ]

So set the directions. Who's the audience? What's the idea that you're trying to use? What kinds of things do you want in it? OK, step two prompt, this is the P. Create the prompts with the AI.

Step three, assess the AI output. Step four, curate the AI-generated text. Maybe you've had to go back and ask AI again, modify it a little, edit a little, and you can kind of take the two and put it together. So you're curating. Then the final one is to edit the combined human and AI.

Kristi Reyes: Isn't this what we already do? I mean, honestly, don't you look at Google and get some ideas and maybe change the words a bit and use that in your writing when you're writing about something that's unfamiliar?

Susan Gaer: What makes me so excited about this is our traditional way of writing is already traditional, and we need to look at the future. And this is a beautiful process where critical thinking is involved. It's no more--

Speaker 5: There's more engagement, much more engagement in the process this way than-- well, I don't know. You could do it either way. You're still engaged. It's faster.

Debbie Jensen: It's faster, but you're going to also, in my opinion, might get better writing.

[interposing voices]

Kristi Reyes: We have to give them models anyway, right?

Speaker 3: [ INAUDIBLE ] happens between 2 and 3. And it starts to leave the draft, then it happens some more. And I'm not writing worried about my grammar and stuff like that. They're fixing it. Is that cheating?

Susan Gaer: So he said that the process of editing--

Kristi Reyes: He's writing a book.

Susan Gaer: He's writing a book. The process of editing is that the editors are doing the grammar checks and the punctuation checks, right? You're not doing it. And that question is, is that cheating?

Kristi Reyes: But I've seen some books that have been edited and still have errors.

Speaker 6: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Good point.

Speaker 5: [ INAUDIBLE ] there's a lot more considering the prompt and delving into the topic in steps 1 and 2 because they help become very adept at [ INAUDIBLE ] they want to know. We give them a prompt, and then we [ INAUDIBLE ] try to find some-- Google it and find some information on the web. Here, they really have to refine their [ INAUDIBLE ] Otherwise, what's coming out? It's garbage in, garbage out, right? Or are really asking students to spend that time upfront understanding what it is they are looking for and what they want to know.

Kristi Reyes: I think that it also helps with audience, because a lot of my students, that wasn't something [ INAUDIBLE ]

Debbie Jensen: Many understand that they're going to not talk to their boyfriend [ INAUDIBLE ] They can get that. But the [ INAUDIBLE ] no. They aren't able to. So you can see assignments and say, OK, now it's generated for this, or now it's generated for that. And so they can actually begin to see the differences in [ INAUDIBLE ]

Speaker 6: Or don't tell them. Give them a scenario. They bring it back.

[interposing voices]

Debbie Jensen: Is it formal or informal?

Kristi Reyes: So we have some comments in the chat. I've seen posts by people who asked it to pretend to be a person with certain characteristics, and it made up experiences that it had. Yeah, and that's part of the prompt engineering is you ask it to play the role of whatever person, and that's the kind of language that it will give you as well. So I've seen write a text asking my boss in the form of Shakespeare. It will do that. Yeah.

Another question we have is does ChatGPT speak Spanish? As I said, yeah, I think that the translations are very, very good.

Susan Gaer: You can talk to it in Spanish if you had to.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah. Let's see, what's the other content? Let's see what else. I think that's it. Oh there was one more question or comment here about writing. Can I find it? Let's see, sorry, let me find it.

Susan Gaer: And online people, if you have a question or you want to make a statement, feel free.

Kristi Reyes: What else? There was one more. There was one more. You have to have clarity in your own writing before a copy editor will fix your errors. Yeah, yeah, good point. I think that's it.

Speaker 2: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Yeah.

Speaker 2: [ INAUDIBLE ] So if I give them a topic, they're going to get stuck in this rabbit hole where [ INAUDIBLE ] research. [ INAUDIBLE ] researching in [ INAUDIBLE ] do anythingfor our [ INAUDIBLE ] research. And, while I [ INAUDIBLE ] write in the comments, I write them-- I got a [ INAUDIBLE ] thing that [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: Yeah and they can actually say, tell me about a cultural-- excuse me, sir, in the back, because we have people online, when you're talking, they can't hear anything. So, I forgot where I was going with that. Oh, yeah, cultural experience, it doesn't do personal cultural experience because it's not a human. And so there are things that the students are going to have to supply in order to make it a good piece of writing. So yeah, it won't do that.

Kristi Reyes: That's right. Next slide.

Speaker 3: So before you go on, so [ INAUDIBLE ] it only tells you what you know, and then it makes it so that it is consumable by somebody to turning it in. If you walk out into the field, and you see an igneous rock and you don't know what that rock is, it will never know what the rock is. You'll ask what kind of rock it is.

So you're making something presentable. This is more of a presentation to somebody or answering in your class vocabulary. Once you give them the word, now they know it exists. People still don't know what they don't know. And AI can't fix that in this format.

So how do we get them to ask what they don't know to try to say these are the things that are out there, maybe. I mean, I'm kind of trying to figure out-- this is amazing for history and sociology, medical facts, but it's not good for diagnosis, quite frankly. And it wouldn't be good for identification. So I'm curious where we fit that into-- you're looking at [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Instruction? You. That's where we will never be obsolete, because it cannot do some things that only we can do. A few more years.

Debbie Jensen: It can write code.

Kristi Reyes: It can, exactly. Yes, it can explain what's wrong with your code, debug it.

Susan Gaer: It won't take our jobs. If we do our jobs well, it is not going to take away our jobs. Yes, we have to change--

Kristi Reyes: Because of what you said, yeah. I mean, when you don't know what you don't know, you need someone to tell you what you don't know. Exactly.

Speaker 7: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Debbie Jensen: And so the first three paragraphs were [ INAUDIBLE ] And in the fourth paragraph, I see that she does it. And he said, but that was pretty good, wasn't it? It can be asked to write it in the style of him, when he put the thing.

He said, they probably won't have it, but they nailed it. And then he discussed how he viewed this, and with purpose and the change. Yes, there will be jobs lost. It's inevitable. That happens every time in history when there is a shift. There will be jobs lost.

Speaker 4: And Kristy just pointed out that there'll be jobs gained.

Susan Gaer: Yes.

Debbie Jensen: There will be jobs gained.

Susan Gaer: Yes correct.

Debbie Jensen: And that's where we have to help our students, so that they are [ INAUDIBLE ] OK? All right, so here's some workarounds. And again, some of them may appeal, and some of them you go, no, I don't like that. You can have students that are required to use in-class materials. ChatGPT is not there, so they can't use it. They have to revise the work in response to the instructor's feedback. OK, so you get it, you tell them you change this or that. Cite all sources fully.

Speaker 7: I have a question.

Debbie Jensen: Yes.

Speaker 7: Can't you just give their work, change it to based on teacher's response, they can put change [ INAUDIBLE ]

[interposing voices]

Speaker 7: They can do that, right?

Debbie Jensen: ChatGPT will do that. It will continue the conversation. Yes, it will. You can also put it in ChatGPT--

Susan Gaer: And it will save all your previous requests in ChatGPT, so it knows you and it knows that you already asked that question and it will find it for you.

Debbie Jensen: Stay up [ INAUDIBLE ] You can assign a format that currently ChatGPT's is not good at. Write presentations, verbal presentations, with a Q&A to check for depth of understanding. You can use prompts that are focused on current information.

Remember, the information is [ INAUDIBLE ] in. That was the data dump. So can they put another data dump in? Sure. But for right now, you could use something that happened yesterday on the news. Or local, what's happening locally here? You can use prompts to deal with with that.

And I liked this one. Because there are built-in biases, because the information that is put in had biases, play the game of fact/fiction, biased/unbiased, and have them explain and find the bias. So I thought that was good. Yes.

Speaker 4: You were saying earlier [ INAUDIBLE ] As an administrator, we spent 100 years supervising and coaching teachers. I saw that there was a wide divide between the quality of questions the teachers asked. This will force the teachers to revise their questions when they get a quick example of what their question will result in with immediate feedback, not waiting for a whole class.

Debbie Jensen: Yeah. This requires something. That's true. We're preparing them, but there will be changes. Yeah.

Speaker 4: I saw a couple of things in chat and people were talking about, well, you can give them a personal experience prompt and they put that in. I would just kind of argue, at that point, if we change the way we're providing the instruction and they have to go through all these crazy workarounds to get a final product that we can't distinguish from a regular person, then we succeed anyways.

Susan Gaer: Yeah, because they figured out how to dupe us.

Kristi Reyes: I like Marcia's content. Students who plagiarize are going to plagiarize.

Speaker 4: Yeah.

Debbie Jensen: Yeah.

Kristi Reyes: We just have to tell them, you're not going to learn by doing that. Don't you tell students that? By copying, you're not learning, and that's not going to serve you well later on. Yeah. Yeah.

Debbie Jensen: Right.

Speaker 2: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Yeah. Great points.

Debbie Jensen: So we're going to wrap up ChatGPT I think now. And just remember, the results have biases, and these biases are quite easy to see. So you would want to work with that on your students. The information is not current, absolutely not current, and may not be accurate. Students would know to check for those things.

As stated in the sample paragraph from ChatGPT, as a language model AI, I don't have personal experiences or emotions, but I'll describe a principle that could be applied to one's life. And that, I think, is the beauty of ChatGPT. It gives you a framework, and you add your personal experience.

Kristi Reyes: I don't know if you all saw on the news. Oh my gosh, this is really a do not do. The school shooting, the University of Michigan, did you see that their administration used ChatGPT to create a letter of condolence? I'm not kidding.

[interposing voices]

But don't we want to talk about the ethics there with our students? Yeah, I think that could be a great [ INAUDIBLE ]

Debbie Jensen: [ INAUDIBLE ] whereas that [ INAUDIBLE ] It's about the kind of skills that are required to write your own stuff using your original ideas, of finding your own experience. So it's formulated their critical thinking skill set that I feel like is going to be lost, but it might just be lost in the same way that those math skills were lost when they get out with scientific calculators. It might just be something that is general population-- because there are mathematicians who know how to do that math.

Susan Gaer: Yeah, but I don't believe that it's a loss. I mean, I don't believe that it's a loss. I believe that we're using it in a different way. And maybe what's lost is not needed anymore. So, I don't know, it's just like, I know kids learn their multiplication tables, but they still use a calculator. It's an age-old discussion. And even the testing systems now allow people to use calculators because they need to be faster. They need to be better.

So we're going to move on to the graphic part of AI, if you don't mind. So this is Dall-E 2. And I don't know if you know about Dall-E 2. It's an image generator. It will generate any image that you ask it. It's open. You can use the images that are generated without citing them. Just say you got it from Dall-E 2. And in case you're interested, the name honors surrealist artist Salvador Dali and the Pixar robot.

Kristi Reyes: So just to show you our images, we entered, show us an image from Wall-E in the style of Dali, and show an image of Dali in the style of Pixar. So this is the debate, though.

The Supreme Court, if you're following, they're coming up with a decision about artists' rights. Would I have the right to use some Van Gogh-esque type of artwork and put my name on it and sell it? So it's quite debatable. We're going to talk about the--

[interposing voices]

Not anymore, right? After what 1920, after 1920, copyright, right?

Speaker 8: Can I just say something real quick?

Kristi Reyes: Sure.

Speaker 8: What I love about these generators is that when I'm looking for an image to demonstrate a concept to my students, I can go into an art generator and describe exactly the image that I'm looking for, and it'll generate something very close to what I need and I don't have to spend all that time searching the internet for that particular image. Because my ESL students, they relate to graphic images much more than they relate to text.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah. I mean, and you finally find the image that you love and its copyright. You know? Yeah, so you want an image. I saw one, it's a chair in the shape and color of an avocado. If you want to create that, it will make it for you. Right?

Speaker 8: It's also an opportunity for an activity for the students to go in and make a description of something that they want to see. So they're making pictures with their words, or their prompting pictures using their words. I think that's very powerful.

Kristi Reyes: It is.

Susan Gaer: Oh, this is my favorite one. Create an organized refrigerator.


Does anybody have a refrigerator [ INAUDIBLE ]

Debbie Jensen: The So currently all these-- it has to be by typing in the prompts [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: You type in a word prompt.

Debbie Jensen: And also, Can we have the next slide where I showed a picture? So you can also take a picture that you have or a picture that you take outside, and it will generate images. This is my dog. This is the original right here. And then I asked it to generate different images, like my dog. And it will generate it.

Speaker 4: So when I was using this the first time, I suddenly discovered how little [ INAUDIBLE ] because I needed to know an artist like [ INAUDIBLE ] Picasso, and something about what their art looked like to know if I was going to even like it before I could ask the right question.

Kristi Reyes: Well, it doesn't have to be in the style of. You can just-- Yeah, yeah.


One word, really quick, Christina. Some of the people images look really weird. Kind of like her dog's mouth right here. And if you're not specific, you're only going to get white folks. OK? There's the bias, OK?

Debbie Jensen: It's AI. So the more equations you ask them, the more prompts you report, the more it's going to generate prompts that you want to see. So if we keep asking for specific pictures, then it will learn to generate [ INAUDIBLE ] Christine, you had a question.

Speaker 9: So I created a ChatGPT [ INAUDIBLE ] Can I take the word problem and put it into Dall-E 2 and get the diagram [ INAUDIBLE ] put in?

Debbie Jensen: Probably. Maybe.

Kristi Reyes: [ INAUDIBLE ] Let us know.

Debbie Jensen: You're just-- you're [ INAUDIBLE ]

Speaker 9: You got to be smiling.

Susan Gaer: I can just see the math [ INAUDIBLE ]

[interposing voices]

Kristi Reyes: Well, there's so much AI out there there's probably a better tool for you, actually.

Speaker 10: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: But I am a teacher-- and she's [ INAUDIBLE ] but she's teaching aircraft students in maintenance of aircrafts. And she has pictures of aircraft, but they're copyrighted. But she puts the picture into Dall-E and she gets a similar picture of the aircraft that she can use.

Debbie Jensen: Wow.

Speaker 10: Well, maybe that's where the Supreme Court is trying to make a decision.

Susan Gaer: It's similar to music. Remember music?

Kristi Reyes: Napster. Remember Napster?

[interposing voices]

Susan Gaer: That's funny because I've said said it [ INAUDIBLE ] They figured out a solution, right? Artists now get paid for their music--

Speaker 10: Not very much.

Kristi Reyes: No.

[interposing voices]

Susan Gaer: You have to [ INAUDIBLE ] we can't ignore--

[interposing voices]

Susan Gaer: I'm an old person, and I'm on the right of the--

[interposing voices]

Debbie Jensen: Yeah.

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: I've heard of that, but I haven't checked it out yet. The OME.

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: So you just put text, and it will create a slideshow for you. And it created a slideshow for you. Tome, T-O-M-E.

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ] Very formulaic.

Kristi Reyes: Mhm. Very formulaic, he's saying.

Speaker 4: [ INAUDIBLE ] there's an Add Example. And students will struggle with that. But you can do [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: You could do ChatGPT first, yeah. Tome.

Speaker 9: So I just want-- [ INAUDIBLE ] I just want their [ INAUDIBLE ]

Speaker 4: Oh, yeah, they're [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: Then you use Dall-E. OK. Oh, Christina. So how teachers can use it, Susan or Debbie.

Debbie Jensen: [ INAUDIBLE ] You can take [ INAUDIBLE ] And who owns the images? The person who generates the image owns the images at this moment. But that will change with Supreme Court justices or whatever, I don't know.

Speaker 9: But it's not the art generator that owns the art?

Debbie Jensen: No.

Speaker 9: It's your idea--

Debbie Jensen: If you look it up, it says the user who generates the image owns the image. Generated--

Speaker 9: So you don't have to cite it in your presentation?

Debbie Jensen: No.

Susan Gaer: That's cool.

Debbie Jensen: What I do-- what I do is-- because I've already been [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: So there we go. How many times are your students creating a presentation, and they're not finding a photo? They can use it to create images customized specific to their needs. When you have students do projects and things, right? What else?

Other student uses. Students could enter a vocabulary word to get an image, something different than Google Images. We could use this for writing prompts as well. How often do you use an image for writing? And do you want it to be really original?

It was actually-- I have to credit my daughter. She's a Gen Z. She came up with this idea. She's been using a different image generator, Midjourney, if you've heard of that, and she said, why don't you do this, Mom? Have students write a description, put it into ChatGPT, get some correction, then put it into Dall-E, and see what image it generates from their description. And then you give that image to a different student, hey, look at this image. Now you write a description of that image, and they compare their works.

[interposing voices]

I know. I like that. I'm going to be trying that this summer. So all kinds of student collaborative writing. These are the limitations a bit. Do you want to go over this?

Debbie Jensen: Yeah. Exams [ INAUDIBLE ]

Kristi Reyes: We have 20 seconds.

Debbie Jensen: [ INAUDIBLE ]

Susan Gaer: No. Not yet, but they'll make [ INAUDIBLE ]

Debbie Jensen: Not lots of human diversity, as described. The pictures are very white. That's what I want to say.

Speaker 9: Can you put in a description--

Kristi Reyes: Yes.

Speaker 9: --of a Middle Eastern individual?

Kristi Reyes: Yes. Yes. Something interesting, so keep asking, keep changing your prompts until you get my-- it could be.

Debbie Jensen: [ INAUDIBLE ] Once you start doing that, [ INAUDIBLE ] you, it will have more-- it will be in this prompt.

Social issues such as stereotyping, racism, sexism are apparent [ INAUDIBLE ] Some quality issues, as Christine mentioned, about the way people [ INAUDIBLE ] A lot of pictures we couldn't use.

We're thinking about the artists, the artists who have spent a lot of time doing drawings. What's going to happen? What is the intellectual property game? This stuff. we have to think about. Right now, you can't use it commercially. I don't think any commercial product can use AI. And we should identify our images in AI. I always believe in citing everything. So I don't care if it says we don't have to cite. I still cite because it doesn't hurt to cite.

Kristi Reyes: We don't really have time for this, so maybe today at dinner, you can reflect on your own if you're eating all by yourself. Or if you're joining dinnermates, you can discuss the power of ChatGPT and Dall-E, how you're going to use it in your instruction.

Debbie Jensen: This last sentence is Debbie Jensen.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah, go, Debbie. Read that last sentence with power.

Debbie Jensen: Read it with power.

Kristi Reyes: Yeah.

Debbie Jensen: AI will be in your class. You have a choice. Either you're in charge or your students are.


Susan Gaer: Make a plug.

[interposing voices]

Kristi Reyes: Thank you.